The origin of matter


Review content modules and vocabulary (macro to micro) 

What is matter and where does it come from? 
All matter comes from stars! 

Star - a ball of hydrogen gas that produces radiation 
Our sun
Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun


Fusion - the nuclear reaction that combines two atomic nuclei to form 
heavier elements. In a star this happens because the massive 
gravity of the star squeezes hydrogen together to form helium and a 
variety of heavier elements  

Gravity - a force that attracts two bodies that have mass 

Supernova - an explosion that occurs when a star much more massive 
than our sun begins to fuse iron and the force of  inward gravity 
overcomes the outward force of fusion. Elements heavier than 
iron are fused and scattered during the supernova explosion. 


Crab Nebula Super Nova 
Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crab_Nebula.jpg
 

YouTube Video

Video from: 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKqvjEE0wFg


Atom - a basic unit of matter consisting of a dense nucleus surrounded 
by a cloud of negatively charged particles
Nucleus - the center of an atom containing one or more protons and 
one or more neutrons 
Proton positively charged particle that orbits an atom's nucleus 
Neutron neutrally charged particle that orbits an atom's nucleus 
Electron  - a negatively charged particle that orbits an atom's nucleus 

Rutherford diagram of an atom
Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Atom_diagram.png


Accretion - the accumulation of material attracted together by gravity that was once ejected from supernova explosions and other galactic processes 
Planet - a ball of material formed from billions of years of accretion 

Earth 
Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Earth_Eastern_Hemisphere.jpg
                                                       Video from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mcC8kFacrk


Mine - a place in the earth's crust  where elements or minerals are 
dug up or extracted 
                                           
                                            Open pit iron mine in Australia
Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:This_was_once_Mount_Whaleback,_iron_mine.jpg

Video from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S16q_x8TUo0


Refining - the process of removing impurities from elements or 
minerals that have been mined 
Steel refining furnace 
Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fotothek_df_n-08_0000320.jpg


Video from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9l7JqonyoKA




Rolling - turning raw steel ingots into rolls that can be easily stamped or punched 

YouTube Video


Rolled sheet steal at a factory in Korea
                               Image from: http://www.tradekorea.com/product-detail/P00292365/Galvanized_Steel_Coils.html




Pressing - drawing sheet steel into as shape using a press 

YouTube Video

Video from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ieLdyW-OiYI

Your motor housing was created from a pressing process



Discussion questions: 

What is a star? 
How do stars produce energy? 
How is the creation of uranium different from helium?
What causes fusion to happen in stars? 
What is gravity and what is it's role in fusion? 
What causes massive stars to explode? 
What is a proton? 
What is a neutron? 
What is an electron? 
How long did it take our planet to form?
What process caused our planet to form?  
Where do elements on earth come from? 
How is steel purified? 
What type of ore does steel come from? 
What must be added to iron to create steel? 
Explain the process required to create sheet steel
How do presses work? 
What processes make the other parts of your bot possible? 








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